New York City is composed of five boroughs. While Manhattan and Staten Island are islands, Brooklyn and Queens are geographically part of Long Island, and the Bronx is attached to the US mainland. The islands are linked by bridges, tunnels and ferries.
Manhattan is 13.4 miles long and 2.3 miles wide at its widest. Except at its northern and southern tips, the borough's avenues run roughly north and south, and streets run east and west. One-way thoroughfares are common, with traffic moving east on even-numbered streets and west on odd-numbered streets. Fifth Avenue divides the island into east and west sides (for example, locations on 57th Street west of Fifth Avenue are designated "W. 57th St.," and east of Fifth Avenue, they're "E. 57th St."). As you move farther east or west from Fifth Avenue, street addresses increase, usually in increments of 100 from one block to the next. For north-south avenues, 20 blocks equals a mile, and the street numbers increase as you go uptown. Blocks can be a useful measure of distance, but keep in mind your direction: walking uptown from 1st Street to 6th Street is about a quarter of a mile, but walking the same number of blocks crosstown, from First Avenue to Sixth Avenue, is approximately a mile.
New York City is on the eastern standard time (Greenwich mean time minus four hours during daylight saving time, from March into early November, and minus five hours the rest of the year). Here is the current date and time in NYC:
Main article: Climate of New York
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to snowfall totals in western New York.
Skaneateles Lake, one of the eleven Finger Lakes, provides drinking water for the city of Syracuse and nearby areas in central New York. In general, New York has a humid continental climate, though under the Köppen climate classification, New York City has a humid subtropical climate.Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry one from the northwest.
Downstate New York, comprising New York City, Long Island, and lower portions of the Hudson Valley, has rather warm summers, with some periods of high humidity, and cold, damp winters which, however, are relatively mild compared to temperatures in Upstate New York, secondary to the former region's lower elevation, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and relatively lower latitude compared to the latter. Upstate New York experiences warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions, with long and cold winters. Western New York receives heavy lake-effect snows, especially during the earlier portions of winter, before Lakes Erie and Ontario themselves freeze. The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and at higher elevations of the Southern Tier.
Summer daytime temperatures usually range from the upper 70s to mid-80s °F (25 to 30 °C), over much of the state. In the majority of winter seasons, a temperature of −13 °F (−25 °C) or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and 5 °F (−15 °C) or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands of the Southern Tier.
New York ranks 46th among the 50 states in the amount of greenhouse gases generated per person. This relative efficient energy usage is primarily due to the dense, compact settlement in the New York City metropolitan area, and the state population's high rate of mass transit use in this area and between major cities.
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Due to its unique geography, and the freeway revolts of the late 1950s, New York is one of the few American cities with arterial thoroughfares instead of having numerous highways within the city.
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